Unagi-dare (eel sauce)
Mirin (sweet rice sake), one part; Soy sauce, 6-7 parts; Tamari soy sauce, 0.3-0.4 parts, depending on taste. Heat mirin in a pan. While simmering, add tamari soy sauce and soy sauce. Grill the eel head and spine, then add. Be sure not to boil. Simmer for 1-1.5 hours.

Uo-dare (fish sauce)
Sake, one part; Soy sauce, 0.6 parts; Tamari soy sauce, 0.4 parts. Mix together, then add fish spine and simmer.

Tori-dare (chicken sauce)
Sake, one part; Mirin (sweet rice sake), two parts; Soy sauce, one part. Has a somewhat sweet taste. Add grilled chicken meat scraps and fat to it.

Nii-tsume (sauce for simmering)
Mirin (sweet rice sake), one part; Tamari soy sauce, 0.4 parts; Soy sauce, 0.6 parts; Sake, 0.5 parts. Mix together, then simmer and remove impurities.

Kake-joyu (soy sauce soup)
Sake, 10 parts; Soy sauce, 10 parts; Mirin, one part. Simmer until two-thirds of the sauce is left.

Tamago-joyu (egg soy sauce) (Return to How to Cook)
Egg yoke, one part; Kake soy sauce, one part. Mix both together well.

Dengaku-miso (fermented bean paste)
Sakura miso, 100 g.; Sake, 55 cc.; Sugar, 35 g.; Mirin (sweet sake) 70 cc.; Egg yellow from one egg. Mix over heat until it turns pasty.

Tama-miso (egg fermented bean paste)
White miso, well-strained, 200 g.; One egg yoke; Sugar, 20g.; Sake, 35 cc.; Mirin (Sweet sake),35 cc.. Add egg yoke to miso and grind well in a mortar. Mix in sugar,sake, and mirin. Transfer to a pan and heat well and mix. Add mirin to give it a a gloss. Be careful not to overcook as it will turn black. If Japanese pepper leaf is added, it can be used for Taraku-miso. Also good for other dishes such as tori-soboro (sweet ground chicken) and ebi-soboro (sweet ground shrimp). Will keep in the refrigerator for about one month.

Gomazu-miso (sesame seed vinegar with fermented bean paste)
White sesame seed, 2 tablespoons; White miso, 100 grams; Sugar, 2 tablespoons; Vinegar, 3 tablespoons; Yuzu (citron) vinegar, 1 tablespoon. Grind the white sesame seeds until oil forms. Then mix in the rest of the ingredients.

Ama-zu (sweet vinegar) (Return to How to Cook)
Vinegar, one part; Mirin, one part. Mix both together well.

Nihai-zu (two-part vinegar)
Vinegar, three parts; Soy sauce, one part; Soup stock, one part. Mix ingredients well.

Sanbai-zu (three-part vinegar)
Vinegar, three parts; Mirin (sweet sake), two parts; Soup stock, one part; Light soy sauce, small amount. Mix the ingredients. When mirin evaporates, sugar can be added instead. Can be used on shellfish, sea cucumber, octopus, cucumbers, and other ingredients that do not absorb vinegar. Also good on vegetables.

Sushi-zu (sushi vinegar) (Return to How to Cook)
For one cup of rice: Vinegar, two tablespoons; Sugar 2/3 tablespoon; Salt, 3/5 teaspoon; Mix ingredients with sashi kobu (kelp) and simmer until the flavor becomes mild.

Pon-zu (citron vinegar)
This sauce uses the juice of citrus fruit. Usually daidai (bitter orange) is used, but sudachi, kabosu, yuzu, and lemon are also good. Ingredients: Juice, one part; Soy sauce, 0.8 parts; Tamari soy sauce, 0.2 parts; Konbu (kelp); Katsuo-bushi (shaved bonito); Red pepper. Mix these ingredients together. If the juice is too acidic, add a little mirin. Set mixture aside for one week, then strain. Can be used on white fish or in nabemono (hot pot). If you want to save on juice, add vinegar to retain acidic taste.

Tosa-zu (Tosa vinegar with bonito flavor)
Vinegar, 3.5 parts; Water, one part; Mirin, one part; Light soy sauce, small amount; Sugar, small amount. Mix ingredients. Add konbu (kelp) and cook. After it boils once, add bonito flakes.

Goma-zu (sesame vinegar)
Grind sesame seeds until oil appears. Add sugar, then light soy sauce, and vinegar, thinning the mixture with a little soup stock and keeping it stiff. Also add a little white miso to ground sesame seeds. Tosa-zu can also be used, although it sweetens the mixture. Use on vegetables.

Happo-zu (happo vinegar)
Soup stock, 7 parts; Vinegar, 1 part; Light soy sauce, 1 part; Konbu (kelp); Oigatsuo (bonito flakes added during simmering); Mix and simmer.

Yoshino-zu (Yoshino vinegar)
Vinegar, 1 part; Mirin (sweet sake) 1 part; Kuzu dissolved in the same proportion of water. Heat together the vinegar and mirin. Add kuzu to thicken. Mix the ingredients so that the flavor will be uniform. Brush on anago (sea eel) sushi, etc. to give it a gloss.

Kinome-zu (Japanese pepper leaf vinegar)
Add crushed kinome to nihai vinegar or sanbai vinegar.

Mizore-zu (sleet vinegar)
Grate Japanese radish or turnip, then rinse in water and with a cloth, wring to remove water. Mix with Tosa-vinegar. When using turnips, rinse in hot water. Depending on what it is being used on, crushed ginger and kinome (Japanese pepper leaf)can also be added.

Karashi-zu(mustard vinegar)
Japanese mustard is mixed with either beaten egg yoke or strained rice gruel diluted with Tosa-vinegar or nihai-vinegar. Egg yoke and a small amount of rice gruel are bring down the mustard to the bottom of the vinegar. The egg yoke will give it a mellow flavor, followed a spicy mustard tang.

Tade-zu (Water pepper vinegar)
Grind the water pepper leaves in a mortar. Add salt and grind together until pasty. Grind the rice on a cutting board and slowly mix with the water pepper. Then return mixture to the mortar. Combine water and vinegar with a little mirin.

Furi-jio (salt sprinkle)
Sprinkle salt. Hold the ingredients 20-30 centimeters away, then sprinkle salt evenly between the fingers. This is a good way of sprinkling salt on fish to be grilled. For fish such as ayu smelt which uses decorative salt, sprinkle on less.

Beta-jio (salt dredging)
Dredge both sides of the fish in salt until it is white. For oily fish such as mackerel, Spanish mackerel, horse mackerel, partial salting will actually increase the fishy smell. Beta-jio is also called Go-jio (heavy salting).

Ate-jio (light salting)
This is also know as usu-shio (light salting). Leftover food if lightly salted will last longer. As a guide, apply salt equal to 1% of the total weight of meat; for fish, 2-3% of its total weight. By applying salt to fish, water is emitted because of osmotic pressure, and so the meat firms and the fishy smell is eliminated. For non-oily white meat fish, use less salt, and for oily, blue backed fish use more salt, as it will soften it. Depending on the type and size of the fish or meat, the amount of salt varies. Also depending on the freshness of the food, salt will take effect quickly making it saltier.

Yobi-jio (salt remover)
This is used to remove salt from salted foods. Place in water with a little salt. The salt in the food will quickly be removed. This method is called yobi-jio.

Tate-jio (sea water salting)
This method uses water containing 3-4% salt, or the same as sea water. Instead of applying salt directly to the ingredient, the salt water evenly distributes salt, enhancing the flavor. This is used when making dried fish, which after rinsing, removes the sliminess and odor. For vegetables, soaking in salt is used in preparing semi-dried white cucumber and Japanese radish, and for bringing out the color of the cucumber. Sashi kobu (kelp layering) will also enhance the flavor.

Shimo-furi (quick dipping)
This method is used for quickly dipping fish, chicken, and beef in boiling water so that the outside turns white. If the ingredient is then dipped quickly in cold water, the heat will not penetrate the inside, holding in the flavor. This also removes the sliminess and fish scales as well as the odor and excess oil. For grilled sea bream, shimo-furi removes the sliminess, the scales, and the blood. Also for tuna and other fish whose meat crumbles easily, shimo-furi firms the outside making it easier to grilling.

Yu-biki (quick boiling)
This method is like shimo-furi, only longer and more like boiling.

Oka-age/Ki-age (quick straining)
In this method, a strainer is used to hold ingredients after they have been boiled, and are left as they are without removing excess water. This is used for watery foods, foods without harshness, and foods whose flavor and color are destroyed when water is removed. For example, yamaimo (Japanese yam), Japanese grated radish, red pepper, and foods containing vinegar then boiled. Water is removed after the ingredient has cooled. On the other hand, lotus root quickly absorbs water, however after it is soaked in vinegar, it is left in the strainer. After wakegi (welsh onion) and chives are strained, they are cooled by fanning.

Iro-dashi (color enhancing by boiling)
This method is used to enhance the original color by heating. As soon as the color peaks during quick-boiling green vegetables, drop them in cold water. Depending on the vegetable, temperature and time vary.

Iro-age (color enhancing by frying)
To maintain the color of a vegetable, fry once then cool and refry again befroe serving. String beans and eggplant can be cooked this way. Whether for frying or deep frying, the object is to maintain the original color of the vegetable.

Su de shimeru (marinating with vinegar) (Return to How to Cook)
Marinating food with vinegar. Not only regular vinegar, but with ni-hai vinegar and san-bai vinegar can be used. Many foods are first salted, then marinated in vinegar, but in this method, only vinegar is used. If minced fish balls are marinated in vinegar, the surface becomes like kamaboko (boiled fish paste).

Su-doru (vinegar marinade)
Marinating in vinegar make an ingredient sour. Examples of ginger and Japanese ginger. They are quickly dipped in boiling water and strained oka-age style, then sprinkled with salt. Excess water is removed and then placed in vinegar or sweet vinegar marinade.

Su-arai (vinegar rinse)
Before applying salt and wrapped in konbu (kelp), the ingredients are rinsed in vinegar. Also, before pickling, the ingredients are rinsed in vinegar to remove the smell.

Kobu-oshi or Kobu-jime (kelp flavoring)
This cooking method uses konbu to give flavor and aroma to fish and to absorb water. Kobu-oshi is used in preparations for white fish such as sea bream and flounder, and for making such vegetables as rape blossoms tasty.The ingredients are lightly salted, then konbu, wiped with a cloth dampened with vinegar, is placed between it. This is then wrapped in food wrap with a heavy object placed on top of it, creating slight pressure. This is left for 2 to 5 hours.

Sake Iri (sake roasting)
This method uses only sake for roasting an ingredient. If too much sake is used, the ingredients will lose their flavor, so cooking should be limited to about five minutes. Just as it is about to evaporate, replenish with the same amount of sake. If the heat is too low, the flavor disappears, so use high heat. For meat or fish ingredients, it can remove the smell. And for ingredients such as matsutake mushrooms and gingko nuts, it prevents the aroma and color from disappearing.

Se-biraki (spine cut)
A method of cutting open fish, along the spine. Sometimes the head is removed and sometimes it is left on.

Hara-biraki (stomach cut)
A method of slicing open fish, along the stomach.

Kata-biraki (one sided cut) (Return to How to Cook)
Mi-no-atsui (thick fleshed meat and fish)For fish fillets and chicken, slice open on one side, through the middle, and open.

Kannon-biraki (Kannon cut)
Slice through to the left and right from the center, like a door. For thick- fleshed fish and chicken, slice down the middle and make a cut on the left and right and open. This will make it easier to cook and also to stuff the insides with other ingredients.

Byobu-biraki (folding screen cut)
Like kata-biraki and Kannon-biraki, this technique makes thick-fleshed fish and chicken thinner and larger. Make a kata-hiraki cut through the fish or chicken at 1/3 of its thickness, then make a kata-hiraki cut through the middle of the thicker layer, in the opposite direction.

Uwami-ni-suru (pre-preparation for chicken and seafood)
Fillet the fish in three or five slices, remove the spine, the bones attached to the flesh and the stomach bones and making it ready to be used for cooking. Can be used for squid, chicken, shrimp, etc.

Tsutsu-giri (cylindrical slice)
One way of slicing fish. The head is cut off and the stomach and visceral are removed. The fish is rinsed then sliced along the bone in circles. Used on horse mackerel, carp, salmon, ayu mackerel, eel, and other tube-bodied fish.

Tsubo-nuki (removing insides of fish)
A method of removing the stomach and visceral of the fish without cutting the stomach. Open the gills and with the tip of the knife, cut away the joint that connects the gills with the jaw. Next, with the tip of the knife, pull out the insides. For small fish, use chopsticks or fingers to remove the insides from the mouth or the gills.This method is also called tsutsu-nuki and era-nuki.

Hone-giri (bone cut)
This method is for fish with many small bones. Make tiny knife cuts on the top of the body and cut the bones so that they can be eaten. In order not to damage the lower part of the skin, this technique is used by making tiny cuts. This is good for conger eel and rock trout.

Hira-gushi (hira skewering)
One way of skewering. Fish skewered straight through, without twisting the body.

Noshi-gushi (noshi skewering)
This technique is used for ingredients such as shrimp which curl when heated when it should be served straight. For shrimp, a skewer is pierced at the base of the head straight through to the tail, along the line of the shell on the stomach side.

Tsu-no-ji (curve shaped)
When shrimp are heated they curl. This skewering method maintains this shape. A skewer is pierced through a curved, rounded shrimp, along the segments, being careful not to break it. Then it is cooked.

Ryo-zuma ori (two-tuck skewering)/ Kata-zuma ori (one-tuck skewering)
This is a method for skewering fish. After filleting fish into three pieces, the fillets are thin and long. In order not to fall apart and maintain their shape, this method is used. The skin side of the fish is the top and the fillet is rolled up at both ends, then skewered. For kata-zuma ori, only one side is rolled up.

Sasa-giri (bamboo leaf cut)
A method of cutting for long, pole-like vegetables, sliced diagonally. For leeks, burdock roots, etc. The vegetable is sliced in half, lengthwise, then cut at a diagonal.

Hyoshigi giri (clapper cut)
A method of cutting, used for Japanese radish and carrots. Thick rectangular slices in the shape of wooden clappers.

Shino (small bamboo cut)
This shape reminds one of shino bamboo, and is used to make vegetables thin and tube-shaped such as Shino udo (spikenard).It is also the name of a dish.

Hari ni utsu (needle cut)
A method of cutting into very fine strips. Used for hari-shoga (ginger), hari-yuzu (citron), hari-nori (dried seaweed)

Shikishi-giri (fancy paper cut)
Fancy paper is used when writing haiku. It means to cut into a thin square, such as thin fried egg and konbu (kelp).

Fukuro-bocho (envelope cut)
To cut a hole in an ingredient for stuffing vegetables and meat in.

Kakushi-bocho (hidden cut)
To make a cut with a knife in an ingredient's back side in order to allow the heat to pass through and the flavor to penetrate, without being visible when served.

Kazari-bocho (decorative cut) (Return to How to Cook)
In order to enhance the beauty of the food, small cuts are made on the surface of the ingredients, such as on the caps of shiitake mushroom and on fish. It also makes the food easier to eat and for the flavors to be absorbed.

Ikomi (ikomi cut)
Used when an ingredient is scooped out or cut in order to fill with another ingredient. Cucumber, squash, wax gourd, eggplant, white cucumber, tomato, onion, etc. are hollowed out and filled with fish or ground chicken and seasonings such as miso.The same as inro cut.

Shiraga (white-haired cut)
Thin long cuts on white-colored vegetables such as Japanese radish, udo (spikenard), and leeks. Thinner than the needle cut. For leeks cut shiraga-style, the white portion of the leek is first cut into pieces of 4-5 centimeters and then the insides are removed and lengthwise cuts are made along it. It is then rinsed in water to make crisp.

Kanten no modoshi kata (preparing agar-agar)
Put kanten in water until is soft, then squeeze dry. For one kanten stick, add 3 cups (540 cc.) of water and cook under high heat. The amount of water used depends on what dish is being made.

Koya-dofu no modoshi kata (preparing dried bean curd)
Use a generous quantity of hot water and cook over medium heat. When the bottom of the tofu expands, turn over. When it gets soft, turn off the heat and let it sit for a while. It will then absorb water. Without breaking it, squeeze out water. Do this four or five times, until the water turns white and bubbly.

Tofu no mizu kiri (draining water from tofu)
Lay a cloth on top of a cutting board and put the tofu on top and put another cutting board on top of that. Leave it for one hour, depending on how much water needs to be removed. In summer in order to prevent spoiling, cook in hot water with kelp, but do not boil as the vinegar will be absorbed. Also microwaving the tofu without vinegar absorption is an easy method.

Juso (baking soda)
When tofu is heated with baking soda, it softens faster. The color of vegetables when boiled with baking soda is enhanced. But be careful not to use too much as it will turn ingredients slimy.

Myoban (alum) (Return to How to Cook)
Yaki myoban is sold in stores. It is used to remove the harshness from sweet potatoes and chestnuts. It firms the texture of ingredients, and prevents foods such as sweet potatoes and chestnuts from crumbling when simmering. If raw sea urchin is rinsed in myoban, it becomes firm and when mixed with iron, it gives eggplants a nice color.

Nuka (rice bran)
This is the powder that remains after rice has been polished. Adding nuka to food makes it difficult for the flavor to escape and removes bitterness when boiling in water. It is used in pickling and, when mixed with water, in preparing herring and herring roe. It is added to boiling water to remove harshness from bamboo shoots and burdock roots, while retaining color and flavor. When nuka is not available, the water used for soaking rice has the same effect.

Aku (lye)
Hot water (1.8 liters) is poured on ashes (1 cup) from charcoal and straw. After it has settled, the clear water on the top is used. This is used to remove bitterness. Baking soda, however, is easier to use. Aku can remove the harshness from bracken and used when boiling green vegetables. But once it becomes slightly slimy in hot water, do not add more.

Kuzu (kudzu root)
Kuzu is a starch from the root of a vine from the bean family. A feature of it is its transparency and thickening ability. Dishes using kuzu often have the name "Yoshino" attached to it, such as "Yoshino-ni," "Yoshino-jitate" (style). Genuine kuzu takes time to thicken, but maintains the texture and is very pliable. On the other hand, katakuriko (potato starch) thickens quickly, and for thickening sauces which require quick preparation, katakuriko is easier to use than kuzu.

Shin biki ko (newly-ground flour)
This is made from glutinous rice which is made into rice cakes, then broken down and roasted, without burning.

Mijin-ko (mijin powder)
A powder made from steamed glutinous rice turned into rice cakes, then dried, and made into a powder. When water is added to mijin-kona, it becomes kanbai-ko.

Jo-shin ko (Jo-shin powder)
A powder made from rice rinsed in water then dried.

Uki ko (floating powder)
Powder made from flour starch. It is a very light powder, and used for binding ground meat and filler and dusting.

Happo dashi (happo soup stock) (Return to How to Cook)
This is used not as a main seasoning, but as a light flavoring for ingredients. The basic recipe calls for katsuo (bonito) and kelp soup stock, 8 parts; soy sauce, 1 part; and mirin 1 part. There are other variations such as the following:
Shio happo (salty happo) Salt is the main seasoning here. Uses a sake, soup stock, and salt base.
Ama happo (sweet happo) Sugar or mirin are used to increase the sweetness. Salt, soup stock, and soy sauce, etc. are used.
Suiji-happo(Suiji happo soup stock) (Return to How to Cook)Soup stock with suichi happo soup stock.
Koikuchi-happo (strong-flavored happo) The amount of salt used is less, however, the amount of soy sauce is increased.

Oigatsuo (bonita flakes added during cooking)
This is also known as sashigatsuo. When simmering vegetables and dried food, katsuo bushi (bonito flakes) are added midway to enhance the aroma and flavor. It is wrapped in a cotton gauze bag and added along the way. Tea filter bags are also convenient to use.

Shira-ni (white simmer)
This is also known as shiro-ni.It is used when simmering foods such as udo (spikenard), lotus root, lily bulb, turnip, yam, squid, white bait, sea eel, to bring out their whiteness. For vegetables, soup stock is used; for fish, a sake-based mixture with salt and light soy sauce and white soy sauce is used for seasoning.

Fukume-ni (mixed simmering)
This is a method for simmering vegetables, in which boiled vegetables are simmered again in happo soup stock and then removed from heat. Right before serving, they are reheated and the flavoring set. For green vegetables, the color is lost and so the soup and ingredients are set apart and combined just before serving.

Saka-ni (simmering in sake)
A method of simmering using a generous amount of sake. To maintain the aroma of sake, only salt is used. This is good for fresh white fish.

Mushi-ni (steamed simmering)
By applying direct heat when simmering, the ingredient loses its shape and lose its flavor, so steaming is used. The soup stock is placed in the steamer and then simmered. Good for male herring, young mackerel, turnips, Japanese radish, etc.

Shiba-ni (Shiba-style simmering)
This method is used mainly for freshwater shrimp and prawn, but also for sillago, small flatfish, and conger eel. Soup stock and sake are used for seasoning as well as a small amount of light soy sauce. The original flavor of the ingredient is enhanced.

Kami-buta (paper lid)
This method uses a piece of Japanese paper or wax paper cut in a circle and then placed on top of the ingredients, instead of a submerged lid. The aroma circulates throughout the pan, however air does not enter, so that the ingredients do not dry out or the shape falls apart.

Ten-mori (Topping) (Return to How to Cook)
Decorative ingredients that are placed on the top of a dish when served. Kinome (Japanese pepper leaves), minced ginger, citron, bonito flakes, etc. are used.

Sugi-mori (cedar decoration) (Return to How to Cook)
Decorative ingredients in the shape of cedar trees used as a topping for dishes when served.

Ito-gatsuo (thread bonito)
Long and thin bonito flakes are used as a decorative topping for boiled food and green vegetables.

Shinoda (Shinoda-style food )
Used to refer to dishes using aburage (deep fried tofu) and food wrapped in it. The aburage is opened and tofu, eggs, meat, vegetables etc. are wrapped in it and then simmered, or deep fried or steamed. Same as kitsune. Also used in Shinoda sushi, Shinoda maki (rolled food), Shinoda-ni (simmered food), etc.

Isobe (Isobe-style food)
Dishes using Asakusa nori (dried seaweed).

Hakata (Hakata-style food)
This refers to the alternating color combination of the design on a Hakata-obi (Hakata kimono sash). The food is presented in this same way using different colored ingredients, layered together in stripes. Hakata nagashi (colored layered food) and Hakata age (fried colored layered food) are examples.

Kinuta-maki (Kinuta roll)
Kinuta is a pole used for rolling a piece of cloth around it. In cooking, yuba (soybean curd), Japanese radish, udo, cucumber, etc., are sliced into thin poles with shrimp, crab, etc. wrapped around it. It is also called Kinu-maki.

Ohara-gi (Ohara wood-style)
Long ago, the women of Ohara carried goods on their head and walked around the streets of Kyoto selling their ware. For cooking, it refers to food that looks like bundles of firewood. It is also called Ohara-me (Ohara-women). Burdock roots, carrots, udo, etc. are thinly sliced and then bound with strips of mitsuba (marsh parsley), kelp, dried gourd shavings, etc.

Naruto (whirlpool)
The ingredients are rolled into a vortex, so that the inner circle looks like the inside of a whirlpool.

Shigure (autumn rain)
This is a name of a dish in which shellfish and fish are simmered in ginger, soy sauce, mirin, and sugar. The most typical is clam shigure. It reminds one of the dark color of autumn rain.

Ichimatsu (checkerboard pattern)
Squares of ingredients are alternated to give the food a checkerboard pattern-look. Kamaboko (fish paste) and sashimi (raw fish) and combinations of fish, vegetables, and meat are arranged in this way.

Hisui (jade)
The dishes in this group resemble the gem, jade, in its green color and design. Jade green gingko nuts are used. Also eggplant just out in early summer cooked in a deep green jade-colored is called jade simmered eggplant.

Rikyu (Rikyu-style)
This refers to a dishes using sesame seeds.Ingredients covered with sesame seeds then deep fried are called Rikyu-age. There is also Rikyu-ae (mix), Riku-mushi (steamed), Rikyu-yaki (grilled). It was said that the tea ceremony master, Sen Rikyu, often used sesame seeds. The words, Rikyu-okonomi (Rikyu taste) and Rikyu-shitate (Rikyu-style) are also used. The Japanese character for "kyu" (rest, relaxation) is not appropriate for cooking and so the character for "kyu" (eternal) is used instead.

Futa-mi (two-layered)
This is a method for using two different ingredients as layers. One ingredient is applied on top of another, then it is grilled, steamed, or fried.

Masago (Real sand)
Like sand on the beach, fish eggs, sesame seeds, poppy seeds, shinbikikko, and other small bits of ingredients are spread on a dish. There is also Masago ae (mix), Masago yaki (grill), Masago mushi (steamed), Masago yose (mixed dish) etc.

Abura no ondo (oil temperature)
The temperature of oil for tempura and deep-fried foods depends on how the batter drops into the oil.
Tei-on (low temperature) (Return to How to Cook)
At 150-160 degrees C., the batter sinks slowly to the bottom, then slowly rises.
Chu-on (middle-range temperature) (Return to How to Cook)
At about 170 degrees C., the batter sinks to about the middle of the oil's depth then rises quickly.
Ko-on (high temperature) (Return to How to Cook)
At 180 degrees or more, the batter immediately rises to the top.

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